Targeted in $41M Hack

3 min readSep 22, 2023


In Brief

  • Stake suffered a $41M loss due to a private key compromise.
  • Zunami was exploited due to price manipulation.
  • EarningFarm lost $530K due to reentrancy vulnerability.
  • Steadefi’s protocol deployer wallet was compromised.


Hacks Analysis

Stake | Amount Lost: $41M

On September 6, the Stake exploit on multiple chains resulted in a $41M loss. The root cause was the compromise of private keys. The attackers were able to gain access to Stake’s hot wallets. The attackers then called the transfer() function to drain 9,620 ETH on the Ethereum Mainnet, 14.24 million MATIC on the Polygon Network, and 82,650 BNB on the BNB Chain. The FBI identified North Korea’s Lazarus Group as the hacker behind this exploit.

Exploit Contract:

Transaction Hash: 0xf8164a54d943386839d7ff6c85e282da4409dda69702899204b9c25e028f7e18

Zunami | Amount Lost: $2.2M

On August 1st, the Zunami Protocol exploit on the Ethereum Mainnet resulted in a $2.2 million loss due to a price manipulation vulnerability. Zunami Protocol’s contract determines account balances by multiplying the current balance with the assetPriceCached() value and this value is directly proportional to the totalHoldings amount. The attacker was able to increase the total holdings by flash loaning 7M USDT from UniSwapV3, 7M USDC, and 10,011 WETH from Balancer and swapping these funds for 4.8M UZD tokens on Curve.

Exploit Contract:

Transaction Hash:

EarningFarm | Amount Lost: $530K

On August 9, the EarningFarm exploit on the Ethereum Mainnet resulted in a $530K loss due to a reentrancy attack. The attacker initially borrowed 80,000 ETH using flash loans and deposited it into the ENF_ETHLEV contract. The attacker then exploited the vulnerable withdraw() function, which allowed them to transfer ENF_ETHLEV tokens to themselves in the fallback function before the withdrawal was executed. This allowed the attacker to redeem 320 ETH and make a profit of 292 ETH.

Exploit Contract:

Transaction Hash: 0x6e6e556a5685980317cb2afdb628ed4a845b3cbd1c98bdaffd0561cb2c4790fa

Steadefi | Amount Lost: $1.1M

On August 7, the Steadefi exploit on Arbitrum resulted in a $1.1 loss. The Steadefi team has confirmed that their protocol deployer wallet was compromised. The attacker first transferred ownership of the Arbitrum and Avalanche vaults and approved themselves as a borrower. The attacker then maximized the lending capacity on the Arbitrum and Avalanche chains and drained the assets. Following the exploit, Steadefi’s total value locked (TVL) dropped by 66% to $669K.

Exploit Contract (on Arbitrum): 0x79B94854e50704f4A121D72bFE6Aaf41BB92F8c0

Transaction Hash: 0x64490459485bf290ef00b360d3ea943fc56bcb364852ac482b772829cf09cad9